Friday, September 4, 2020
Ladies of Sparta and Athens Essay The job of ladies in Ancient Greece all relied upon the city where one lived. In Sparta, ladies were increasingly esteemed and regarded by men, so the men were eager to give them more rights and chances to settle on their own choices. In Athens, men had an increasingly conventional view on ladies and accepted that they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a place in the public eye; so along these lines, men fundamentally checked the ladies activities. Sparta lies in the Peloponnesus, in the south. The Spartans set up a fierce and exacting arrangement of control. Congregations made up by male residents endorsed the significant choices in Sparta. Since the men of Sparta esteemed what women looked like, lovely and appealing ladies were allowed more open doors which in the end prompted having more rights. Fascination was what Spartan individuals thought about most. So as to survey the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s excellence, men would assess the ladies while they were totally naked. Ladies had reflects all finished, so they were continually taking a gander at themselves and fixing themselves. They fixated on their looks and appearances. When a man was satisfied with the lady, he would take her and wed her. Men additionally valued delightful ladies and looked for them as ladies, in any event, defying some of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s norms to win them. Ã¢â¬ . The individuals with the best looks were the most regarded and seen by individuals. Ã¢â¬Å"In Sparta delightful individuals were exceptionally self-regarded: the most attractive man and ladies were most admiredÃ¢â¬ . Ladies who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t delightful didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get picked by the men to marry, and along these lines lived with their dad and scarcely had any rights and opportunity whatsoever. The men just wed the lovely ladies and once you are hitched you are given considerably more opportunity and rights to live by. The men of Athens accepted that the ladies had a particular job in the public eye. While the men were off deciding, they anticipated that the ladies should be at home dealing with the youngsters, family unit, and checking the slaves. Ã¢â¬Å"Courtesans we save for delight, courtesans for every day participation upon our individual, however spouses for the multiplication of genuine youngsters and to be our dependable servants, there's nothing more to it. Ã¢â¬ (Nardo, 57). The men utilized poor and lower class ladies for their own pleasure, and they utilized their spouses to deal with the kids and to be their own maids. The manner in which the men talk about their spouses resembles they are alluding to them as their treatments, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t give them any regard whatsoever. Magnificence wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t esteemed in Athens, it was considerably more imperative to be at home and keep it clean while thinking about the kids and slaves. The ladies secured their body and were as a rule without anyone else. On the off chance that they were to ever go out, they must be joined by an escort. The Athenian ladies werenÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed numerous rights in light of the fact that the men just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept that they ought to be given rights. They thought it was substantially more significant for the ladies to be at home looking out for the children, and slaves while keeping the house clean. So along these lines, the Athenian men didnÃ¢â¬â¢t organize womens rights since they emphatically accepted that their place was at home. Ã¢â¬Å"The process that we pass by today, a young ladies meeting a qualified youngster, experiencing passionate feelings for, and choosing to get hitched was generally unbelievable in Athenian societyÃ¢â¬ . The manner in which the Athenian marriage process occurred was the lady of the hour got offered to the spouse by her dad. The lady of the hour was lawfully unequipped for masterminding her own marriage. The motivation behind marriage was not for affection, rather pampers, cash, land or what ever the spouse and the dad of the lady concur on. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t strange for union with occur with man and ladies not thinking a lot about one another. The ladies would for the most part get offered just because between ages 14 and 18. It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter if the ladies were mindful or not, the men would settle on all the significant choices about the family unit. Ã¢â¬Å"For a ladies must love her significant other in any event, when she has been hitched to an immaterial man and not incite a challenge of prideÃ¢â¬ (Lefkowit, 2005). Regardless of whether a lady is troubled in her marriage course of action there is nothing she can do to transform it, she can't leave, or revolutionary. In Athens, marriage wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t profoundly esteemed; the relationships depended exclusively on the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s father and husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s choices and arrangements. The Athenian ladies didn't have any state or assessment on who or when they wed. The spouse and father made arrangements and controlled their relationships totally, while the ladies were pushed aside with no voice. In Sparta, the man picked a lady who was cross in age who he wished to wed. The marriage stays a mystery, and they live separated, until the lady of the hour gets pregnant and they can move in together. The ladies must be a capable and fit lady, since they oversaw the vast majority of the family and kids. The ladies in Sparta Ã¢â¬Å"largely outweighed men in that sphereÃ¢â¬ . The Spartan men needed to pick their lady of the hour carefully, and needed to ensure that they were fit to the activity of running the family unit, and settling on significant choices. In Athens, the men viewed themselves as the pioneers, and they felt that the main job of a ladies was to remain at home and watch over it, have children, and keep the populace developing and sound. The men were the pioneers, the ladies lived in dread of the men. They were not permitted to claim land under any conditions. They were not permitted to show up in court. They were not permitted to mastermind their own marriage, and they were not permitted to leave the house without anyone else, just joined by their dad or spouse. The men made severe laws that isolated them from the ladies, and instructed the ladies precisely, and the proper behavior. The ladies were viewed as just residents and that's it; they assumed jobs in strict celebrations, however they had positively no genuine choices in law or society. In Athens, the men were the pioneers, and accepted that the ladies were just useful for the little side things, such as looking out for the family, getting pregnant, and keeping the populace developing, they didn't accept that they were able for whatever else significant which is the reason they were given no genuine rights. The men of Athens were considered Ã¢â¬Å"like godÃ¢â¬ and had crazy muscle and quality; the ladies were taken a gander at Ã¢â¬Å"imperfect beingsÃ¢â¬ and got pushed aside by the men without any jobs to secure them. In Sparta, the ladies had dynamic jobs in the network and explicit organizations. In Sparta, not at all like in Athens, it was essential to be fit and solid; they cared very much about military preparing, war and battling. The ladies occupied with numerous physical preparing like the train that the men experienced, yet not as serious. On the off chance that they were ever required, the ladies were equipped for stepping in and battling. The ladies of Sparta were candid and were not as hesitant to face the men, since they were not rewarded as in an unexpected way. Ladies were permitted to possess land, regardless of whether she had siblings, a ladies can share the legacy of her dad, in the event that she had no siblings, she can acquire all the land. The ladies were fit, brilliant, and sure about themselves, in this manner progressively fit for taking on job in the public arena. The Athenian men passed a law that carefully controlled womenÃ¢â¬â¢s social and sexual conduct and restricted what the can possess, and acquire. They had limits on the quantity of ladies who could take an interest in burial services, the ladies were not permitted to pay tribute to the group of passing (shiva call), and when this was permitted on uncommon conditions, there was a constraint of close to 5 lady; they made a standard that the ladies were not permitted to leave the burial chamber before the men at a memorial service. imited the measure of ladies permitted in chapel, and strict celebrations. The motivation behind the men carefully confining the womans rights and restricting precisely what they are and are not permitted to do, was to constrain them to be at home, delivering more kid to keep the populace streaming, and to look out for the land i nside the family.
Posted by Carolyn Bustamante at 3:13 AM
Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Mamma.com Essay The Web News Images Video Audio Kids Power Search | Submit Your Site | Bookmark Mamma | Help Related Searches Beowulf PicturesGrendel BeowulfBeowulf ClusterBeowulf SummariesBeowulf InfoGeneology In BeowulfBeowulf CharactersBeowulf ComputerBeowulf EpicRegister to purchase or sell beowulf on eBay.com Millions of things up for sale from collectibles, collectibles, elusive things or parts, to vehicles! Register now so when you find what you need, youre prepared to allow the offering to start! eBay http://www.clickztracker.com/marec/auction.aspDisplaying Results 1-15 Next Email results1. The Adventures of Beowulf Written in Old English around 1100 A.D., Beowulf depicts the undertakings of an incredible Scandinavian warrior of the 6th century. It would be ideal if you make the most of our adjustment from the Old English form by Ask Jeeves http://www.lone-star.net/writing/beowulf/index.html 2. The Beowulf Project The Beowulf Project News Vist the new Top Cluster List site. The TopClusters site is subsidiary with the IEEE Task Force on Cluster Computing (TFCC) . Different locales to keep an eye on a customary Lycos, Ask Jeeves http://www.beowulf.org/3. Expositions on the Legend of Beowulf Help for understudies perusing and expounding on Beowulf! We list many commendable articles and reports on all parts of Beowulf! Suggestion, Mammas Collection http://www.beowulfessays.com 4. 250,000 Term Papers Beowulf Search the greatest database of papers and research projects on Beowulf. Join to the universes greatest research paper database for just $19.95! Suggestion http://www.edlibrary.com 5. Purchase Beowolf at Amazon.com! From William Shakespeare to Stephen King, Amazon.com has the book you need! With regards to books, CDs, recordings, DVDs, toys and that's only the tip of the iceberg, we have Earths greatest choice! Purchase and spare today! Suggestion http://www.amazon.com 6. Beowulf Underground : Current Articles Unsanctioned and liberated data on building and utilizing Beowulf frameworks Linux NetworX to Unveil Innovative ICE Box? Group Hardware Appliance at SC2001 Trade Show Announcements : Lycos http://www.beowulf-underground.org/7. Uniquely Configured Beowulf Supercomputers PSSC Labs will custom form a Beowulf Supercomputer to address your issues and spending plan. Epilot http://www.epilot.com/clickCache.asp?keyword=beowulfsub=mammapu 8. Legends Beowulf Exploring Legends ever, olklore, Ask Jeeves http://legends.dm.net/beowulf/index.html 9. Epic of Beowulf Essays For Sale This site offers numerous articles on the Epic of Beowulf. Strongly suggested. Suggestion http://www.123helpme.com 10. Beowulf Essays on Beowulf Epic of Beowulf articles Dozens of reports expositions on the epic of Beowulf Ask Jeeves http://www.beowulfessays.com/11. Purchase Beowulf and Save! Okay prefer to save money on Beowulf? BooksellersNow.com constantly demonstrates that internet shopping can be entertaining! Find different connects to incredible reserve funds. An offshoot of Amazon. Suggestion http://www.booksellersnow.com 12. Beowulf Resources for Studying Beowulf Bibliography of Studies of Beowulf for Students. Beowulf in the first Old English . Find out about Old English . An interpretation of the sonnet by Francis Lycos http://www.georgetown.edu/irvinemj/english016/beowulf/beowulf.htm 13. Beowolf at Barnes Noble.com Buy the book Beowolf at Barnes Noble.com, your one-quit shopping asset on the Web for books, music, and video! Temporarily, purchase any two things and transportation is free! Suggestion http://www.bn.com 14. Welcome to THECOMIC.COM home of Beowulf, Deus Ex Machina, and much m global_nav MassArt comic class titles: thecomic.home online store audits about us sketchbook connects All material Copyright Gareth Hinds 1997-2001 deus ex beowulf enormous bearskin Ask Jeeves http://www.thecomic.com/beowulf.html 15. Join the DVD Club and Get 4 DVDs For $.49 Each! Pick 4 DVDs from a rundown of smash hits for just $0.49 each (in addition to $1.99 postage). Subsequent to joining, pick others from more than 1,700 titles. Charge card required. U.S. as it were. FindWhat http://by.advertising.com/1/c/61131/29707/85292/85292 Search results 1-15 of 30 for beowulf1 2 Next Be sans obligation once more! Slice your Visa installments by half! Get alleviation now!Chat about beowulf at 800chat.com Click Here!Search the MegaWeb Yellow Pages for beowulfFind beowulf in the MegaWeb Classifieds ! Spot Ads FREE Click Here! The Web News Images Video Audio Kids
Posted by Carolyn Bustamante at 2:12 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
We Have the Right to Use Cell Phones While Driving Envision driving in a vehicle and not having the option to modify your radio, lower your window, or even converse with your traveler. This may sound somewhat extraordinary, however gradually an individual's privileges are being encroached upon by the individuals who imagine that utilizing a PDA while driving ought to be unlawful. Utilizing a phone while driving is the same than a mother watching out for her youngsters in the rearward sitting arrangement, an individual eating in a vehicle, or even somebody immersed in discussion with their traveler. Could these rights be removed, would common be able to detect be enacted? PDAs previously opened up in the year 1984 and have just developed in fame since (Stutts et al.). Today there are more than one hundred and twenty-8,000,000 clients (Pickler). As of late, PDAs have been at the center of attention for making drivers be occupied, bringing about various accidents. New York has become the principal state to boycott the utilization of hand-held telephones when driving on open expressways. This new law became effective on December 1, 2002. Drivers may just utilize a hand held telephone in a crisis, to call for help or to report a risky circumstance. However, drivers are permitted to utilize hands free gadgets, for example, speaker telephones (New. . .). As of now, there are thirty-eight different states with charges like this one simultaneously (Breslau and Naughton 46). Many are disturbed about these laws since information on the real number of PDA related fender benders isn't finished. As indicated by a representative for Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association, There are not a ton of considerable discoveries (Pickler). It's too soon to tell if New York's new law is bringing down the quantity of passings brought about by phones (Alonso-Zalvidar). In spite of the fact that around 2,600 individuals kick the bucket every year from PDA related mishaps, a wireless client just has around thirteen possibilities in a million of biting the dust in a PDA related car crash. This is multiple times not exactly the odds of being killed by not wearing a safety belt. Different drivers and people on foot have a four of every one million possibility of being killed by a driver utilizing a phone; the possibility of getting killed by an alcoholic driver is multiple times as high (Pickler). In all actuality, each and every human life is significant, however these figures show that phones present just an extremely little hazard.
Posted by Carolyn Bustamante at 9:40 PM
Definition and Examples of Elocution in English Statement is the specialty of powerful open talking, with specific consideration regarding the reasonable, particular, and socially satisfactory pronunciationÃ¢ of words. Descriptive word: elocutionary. In old style talk, conveyance (or actio) and style (or elocutio) were viewed as discrete divisions of the conventional expository procedure. See: explanatory groups. Etymology:Ã From the Latin, articulation, articulation Pronunciation:Ã¢ e-leh-KYU-shen Additionally KnownÃ As:Ã elocutio, style Models and Observations The word oration implies something very unique to us from what it intended to the old style rhetorician. We partner the word with the demonstration of talking (consequently, the rhetoric contest)... Be that as it may, for the traditional rhetorician, elocutio implied style. ...Every expository thought of style included some conversation of selection of words, typically under such headings as accuracy, purity..., straightforwardness, clearness, suitability, ornateness.Another subject of thought was the creation or game plan of words in expressions or provisions (or, to utilize the logical term, time frames). Included here were conversations of right language structure or collocation of words; examples of sentences (for example parallelism, absolute opposite); appropriate utilization of conjunctions and other associating gadgets both inside the sentence and between sentences...A extraordinary arrangement of consideration was paid, obviously, to tropes and figures.(Edward P.J. Corbett a nd Robert J. Connors, Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. Oxford University. Press, 1999)Ã¢â¬â¹ The Elocutionary MovementVarious factors added to increased enthusiasm for the investigation of rhetoric in both the eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years. Various researchers perceived that customary understudies inspired by the service or the bar were missing viable talking abilities, and endeavors were made to beat these lacks. Starting in England and proceeding in the United States, oration turned into the principle focal point of talk during this time. . . .In considering statement, understudies were essentially worried about four things: substantial signals, voice the executives, elocution, and vocal creation (the genuine arrangement of the hints of discourse). (Brenda Gabioud Brown, Elocution. Reference book of Rhetoric and Composition: Communication From Ancient Times to the Information Age, ed. by Theresa Enos. Taylor Francis, 1996)The Principal Parts of ElocutionElocution (elocutio) . . . is the best possible article of the fitting words (idonea verba) and considerati ons (idoneae sententiae) appropriate to the things designed and organized (res inventae et dispositae).Its chief parts are style, poise, and sythesis . . .. Style is detected most as often as possible in words and considerations; nobility in the splendor of the figures of words and musings . . .; and structure in the joining of words, in the period, and in the beat. (Giambattista Vico, The Art of Rhetoric (Institutiones Oratoriae), 1711-1741, trans. G. A. Pinton and A. W. Shippee, 1996)The away from of discrete words and their elements.The only articulation of the feeling of words in associated discourse.Appropriate motion, appreciating under this head the mentality, movements, and part of face generally appropriate to loan liveliness and power to discourse. The Requisites of a Good DeliveryElocution is the craft of conveying composed or communicated in language in the manner in which best determined to communicate the sense, magnificence, or power of the words utilized by the speaker.The imperatives of a decent conveyance are:(Alexander Kennedy Isbister, Outlines of Elocution and Correct Reading, 1870)Lord Chesterfield on Becoming a Fine SpeakerThe foul view a man, who is figured a fine speaker, as a marvel, an extraordinary being, and enriched with some impossible to miss endowment of Heaven; they gaze at him, in the event that he strolls in the recreation center, and cry, that is he. You will, I am certain, see him in a juster light, and nulla formidine [without apprehension]. You will think of him as just as a man of good sense, who embellishes normal contemplations with the graces of address, and the class of style. The supernatural occurrence will at that point stop; and you will be persuaded, that with a similar application, and c onsideration regarding similar articles, you may assuredly approach, and maybe outperform, this wonder. (Philip Stanhope, letter to his child, February 15, 1754) Instructors of ElocutionIf there is a word more anti-agents than all others to an entertainer, or to the relative of on-screen characters, it is the word oration. It is stating a decent arrangement, be that as it may, likely, outside of patent drugs, there is no fake so incredible as portrays nine tenths of address educating. People totally unequipped for talking one sentence normally embrace to make open speakers. What is the outcome? Platform, bar, platform, and stage abound with speakers that mouth, speak, tirade, serenade, and articulate, yet are rarely common. It is an egregious fiendishness. That address can be encouraged I have no uncertainty, however I realize that most educators are to be disregarded as you would evade the plague.(American writer and entertainer Kate Field, cited by Alfred Ayres in Acting and Actors, Elocution and Elocutionists: A Book About Theater Folk and Theater Art, 1903)
Posted by Carolyn Bustamante at 6:36 AM
Friday, August 21, 2020
Selfies - Research Paper Example Selfies are depicted as being photos that are taken by people of their own people with the run of the mill help of webcams or cell phones and afterward in this manner transferred to the different internet based life sites. The expanding ubiquity of selfies and photography is featured by the way that as indicated by phys.org (2013), the web search supplier Yahoo as of late assessed that in 2014, an expected more than 880 billion photos will be taken. As per this gauge, there will be around 123 photographs taken during the time for each youngster, man and lady on earth with the bigger piece of these photos being selfies. An overview led in Britain for Samsung found that 10 percent of ladies and 17 percent of men were recorded as expressing that they significantly delighted in what they accepted to be attractive photos of themselves. Some portion of the charm of selfies depends on the way that taking a selfie is viewed as a strangely simple undertaking. This is rather than the photograph taking issues of yesteryears where taking photographs was viewed as a genuine and cautious undertaking. During this time of film cameras, it was not justified, despite any potential benefits to squander a costly move of film on endeavoring to take self-representations that had a high probability of not being all around centered (Adewunmi 2013). The furious notoriety of selfies via web-based networking media prompted the improvement of Instagram in October 2010. Instagram is an online networking site that is committed to encouraging the sharing of the two pictures and recordings. Instagram clients can take pictures which they at that point effectively transfer and offer with their companions on the site. Planning to ride on the consistently rising prevalence of the selfies marvel, the online networking website Facebook purchased Instagram for around $1 billion in joined stock and money, this is after Instagram had just been operational for just around three years. The expanding number of clients
Posted by Carolyn Bustamante at 7:22 PM
Wednesday, August 12, 2020
You know, that intro stuff Every journal has to start off with some sort of introduction. Ive been keeping journals since I was 9 (Ive always liked keeping ridiculously detailed records of my life I guess you could say I was born for keeping a lab notebook), and even in my journal at age 9 I included a rundown of what I considered to be the essential statistics in my life: My name is Mollie Burgoon. I live in Pickerington, Ohio. I go to Peace U.M. Church. I live at 12183 Cainwood Avenue. I aspire to become an author. (and teacher) or pediatrician or physicist or psychologist. Perhaps at age 21 I can give a more relevant introduction than I could at age 9. My name is still Mollie Burgoon. I am a member of the class of 2006 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which apparently means that Im going to be a senior in a very short period of time. Given that this means I will be applying to graduate school this fall, Im not entirely psyched about this whole senior thing. I am a double-major in courses 7 (biology) and 9 (brain and cognitive sciences), which basically means that I like cells a whole lot, but I like neurons even better. As far as careers go, Im planning to go to graduate school, get my PhD, then hole myself up in a lab for the rest of eternity. There are two things I consider to be the love of my life: my dashing course 16 boyfriend Adam, and biology research. I am a UROP in the Sheng laboratory, where Ive worked since the beginning of my sophomore year Im currently involved in two ridiculously cool projects, one of which involves running mice (this one is named 9M2) through a maze, and the other of which is concerned with examining protein interactions in the post-synaptic density of neurons. In other areas of my life, I am a resident of Macgregor House, a dorm of fabulously uniresidential singles. I lived in A-Entry for three years, and am going to move to D-Entry for my senior year. Im also a member (and former captain) of the MIT cheerleading squad. (By the way, I know you probably didnt know MIT had a cheerleading squad, but since you read the previous sentence, you are now that much less ignorant. Yes, we cheer for football and basketball. No, we do not cheer for the chess club, although we would cheer for any student group that asked us.) Well, I think its time to open this intro to the peanut gallery
Posted by Carolyn Bustamante at 6:17 PM
Wednesday, June 24, 2020
The juvenile justice system was first established in the United States in 1899, and spread from state to state shortly after. Georgia established its own system to try minors in court in 1906, and the first court was built in 1911 in Fulton County. Every single county in the state of Georgia now has a juvenile court and the courts are all controlled by a 1971 law known as the juvenile code. This code aims to make the courts to be protective of individual minors rather than aim for a harsh punishment. Many believe this is the way to treat minors, but many people believe that the juveniles courts are too soft on delinquents. These same people believe that delinquents should be tried in adult courts. Others argue that children are clearly not adults and that some kids go through a phase of rebellion which simply takes some correcting. In regards to those that believe delinquents should be tried as adults, there actually are instances when the state supreme court can take jurisdiction of the case if the minor is alleged to have committed certain offenses. For example some offenses are crimes that include murder, voluntary manslaughter, and rape. The exception applies when the child is under the age of 13 because these minors are considered to be unable to commit a crime with intent. In other words, the case would go straight to juvenile court if the capital offender is unde r the age of 13. There are two types of acts that juvenile courts can try minors over. One type is called a delinquent act which is an act that would considered a crime if the individual were to be an adult. The other is a status offense which would not classify as a crime in an adult court. An example of a status offense would be running away from home. Arrests works differently in the juvenile system compared to the adult court system. For example, if a 15 year old commits a crime and is caught, he or she is considered to be taken into custody rather than arrested. This allows the minor to legally claim that he or she has never been arrested before. Very much like adults, juveniles are granted the same rights such as the right to remain silent and the right to an attorney. The juvenile system actually takes a lot of factors into account when a minor inadvertently confesses to a crime. Courts consider whether the minor truly understood his or her rights at the time. If an officer is able to get a minor to confess, and the method of interrogation used might be considered. Another factor considered is the whether or not there was an adult present to consult with the minor. If a juvenile is wrongfully interrogated, the juvenile system actually works in favor of the minor. Before 1960, minors in the United States were not given the right to an attorney. The case that changed this was the Gault Case U.S. 1 (1967). This case involved a fifteen year old, Gerald Gault, who was taken into custody for an obscene phone call he made to the next door neighbor. Gaults parents were not notified that their son was taken into custody, and they were not told the nature of the offense. The problem ensued when Gault was found guilty with no lawyers present in his defense. Because Gault was only a fifteen year old child and ordered to attend reform school until the age of 21, the unserd case was appealed, and the United States Supreme Court held that juveniles in danger of losing their liberty have several rights (JJS). The process of bringing a minor into the juvenile justice system has a couple of key steps. The first step of the process is called intake, and this is when the youth is turned over to an intake officer of the juvenile court (JJS). The intake officer then has two important decisions to make before the next step. The first of these decisions is whether or not there is is sufficient amount of evidence to back up the charges. The next decision is whether the youth needs to be detained for his or her own safety. There are various reasons as to why a minors would be detained, and the main reason is to prevent them from running away. When parents do not want their child at home or are clearly unfit to care for their child, the officer would order the child to be detained. Where the minor stays during the detention period depends on if it was a delinquent act or a status offense. Alleged delinquents are sent to the states Regional Youth Detention Centers, and status offenders are sent to shelter-care facilities where non delinquents can stay until arrangements are made (JJS). This paper is going to take a deeper dive into the three main types of cases that go through the juvenile justice system; dependency cases, delinquency cases, and status offense cases are the three main topics that will be discussed. When a child is found in an environment in which they are being abused, neglected, or faced with any form of mistreatment while in the care of their own parents, they can eventually find themselves in the juvenile dependency system. Across the United States there are millions of reports of child maltreatment and many of these cases are not investigated deeply due to insufficient evidence; however, about 58% of the cases reported are left for further investigation (Cleveland). Around three quarters of the cases that are presented involve neglect, while a smaller number involve physical or sexual abuse, which make up about a quarter of all cases reported (Cleveland). After investigating these cases some families may be given in-home services from the Child Protective Services. If, after investigating, it is to be believed that the childs safety and wellbeing seems to be at risk, the Child Protective Services will submit a petition to refer the child to the juvenile dependency system. After a dependency case has been filed, the child is removed from their home and placed in an out-of-house temporary placement. If an alleged dependent child is not returned to their home after being removed, an initial hearing, known as a preliminary protective hearing, is held within 72 hours after the dependent child is placed into foster care (2017 Georgia Code). During this hearing there are several participants which include: the dependents legal guardians and their attor ney (or attorneys), the childs Guardian Ad Litem (if one has been appointed), and the Department of Family and Children Services (DFCS) case worker and their attorney. The determination during this hearing includes whether or not there is reason to believe the child is a dependent child and if protective custody is needed so that abuse or neglect are not further experienced. If these are not found, then the child is placed back into the custody of their parents or legal guardians and the case is dismissed. If these are found, then the child may be placed in DFCS temporary custody pending the hearing on the dependency petition. Following this, the case will then lead into an adjudicatory hearing which is the fact finding and evidence phase of juvenile dependency cases. The Adjuratory phase can happen the same day as the disposition phase in some cases and may be done in one hearing. Between the Adjudicatory hearing and the disposition, the dependency ruling is determined on whether or not the child needs to be put into care or returned back to their parents. From this, the decision is made on what the case plan is for the child, which could include being giving custody to the parents, relative, 3rd party or DFCS, working towards reunification, or to caring on with a case plan involving non-reunification. Following the plans for reunification or non-reunification are in-court reviews, periodic reviews, and permanency plan hearings as well as the determination of the need of Termination of Parental Rights (Brownley). In the state of Georgia each dependent child that enters the court for a juvenile dependency hearing is given a Guardian Ad Litem (GAL) who will represent the child in court as stated in the GA Code ?Ã § 15-11-104 (2017 Georgia Code). The job for the GAL is to represent the childs desires and to advocate for the childs best interest. If for any reason there is a conflict of interest between the GAL and the dependent child, the GAL will then step down and serve only as the childs attorney and a new GAL will be appointed to represent the child. In some cases, a Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) will be appointed in sub for Guardian Ad Litem, and for some cases a CASA will be appointed to serve alongside an attorney that is serving as the GAL. For the most part, GALs conduct interviews with the parents and children, make sure the right services are provided by looking over cases, and making recommendations to the court that ultimately influence and dictate what is talked about and decided in the courtroom. Depending on whether or not the dependency case is a state or private filed case, the GAL will either have to go out and research on their own or work with a case worker from DFCS. In both situations there are complications and challenges. It is expected of the caseworker to interview family members, friends, teachers, and anyone involved in the childs life to get an understanding of the childs situation. It is up to the case worker to decide on whether or not the home of the child is in is fit to stay in. The overall goal of the caseworker is the childs safety, permanency, and well-being (Phillips). For the GAL, they try to accomplish whats in the best interest of the child, and sometimes that can clash with what the ca seworker feels is whats best for the child. What makes matters even more complicated are that CAPTA (1974) fails to elaborate best interests of the child (Phillips), and, because of this, in some cases the case worker and GALs relationship can complicate cases. Not only does this happen, but what also complicates things are the constant changes of case workers for a child and that not all the case workers are of the same quality. As stated by Derek Brownley, Social work is tough work, their pay is low and many of the good ones get over worked and burnt out (Brownley). For private cases the GAL must act as both the attorney and the case worker having to do all the duties of the case worker on their own, in the harder cases this is where a CASA will be assigned as well to help alleviate some of the workload. Juvenile delinquency cases involve minors who have allegedly committed crimes. This is to say that if the minor had been an adult the case would have been tried in a regular criminal court. It is important to note the the procedures of juvenile court are vastly different from that of adult criminal court. All states have specialized court systems specific for juveniles who are accused of committing offense that violate the law. Ultimately juveniles are found to be either not guilt or delinquent of the law a much different determination than in adult criminal court.In the same fashion as adult criminal court proceedings, juvenile court proceedings include participants such as police officers, prosecutors, and judges. Procedures for juvenile delinquency cases vary from state to state; however, the process of a typical juvenile delinquency case is typical in nature. The first contact, usually, with the minor is a police officer or law enforcement official. According to Officer Guiden, a law enforcement officer for the city of Atlanta, who post at the Georgia State campus, police officers may decide to deal with juveniles in a number of ways when alleged to have violated a criminal statute. Although Georgia state University, is attended primarily by legal adults, in some of his encounters and arrets Officer Guiden has had to respond to cases involving students who are minors. He recounts that in some instances a warning is all that was called for in his discretionary opinion. When a warning is issued the minor is informed of their offense, counseled to make sure there is an understanding on abstaining from committing the same violation in the future for their best benefit, and released. This is often referred to as the counseled and released alternative. Second the officer can choose to hold the minor until a custodial agent comes. Police officers have the authority to detain the minor, issue a warning, and then release the minor to a custodial guardian. Third the officer, if deemed necessary and at the officers discretion, may refer the minor to juvenile court. This involves placing the minor in custody, not arrest, and referring the case to the juvenile court system. At this point a prosecutor or intake officer, often a probation officer, initiates either a dismissal of the case, an informal resolution, or formal charges are filed. The latter process is defined as petitioning the case. According to Mrs. Guiden, a probation officer with the fulton county juvenile system, intake officers typically consider several key factors including: severity of the offense, the juveniles age, past record, strength of the evidence in the case, the juveniles gender, social history, and most importantly the ability of the minors parents to control his or her behavior. On average 20% of cases are dismissed, 25% are handled informally, and 55% go through formal court proceedings. Informal proceedings still require a court appearance. Typically the minor must appear before a probation officer and/or judge. No formal charges are brought there is usually an info rmal response or request of the court, such as: a stern lecture, attend counseling, attend after-school classes, repay the victim for damages, pay a fine, community service work, or probation. It is at this time if abuse or neglect is suspected the juvenile courts may initiate removal proceedings from the legal guardian. Formal proceedings or petitioning the court, like adult criminal cases does include an arraignment. This is also known as formal charges are brought forth against the minor. In some instances the minor may be sent to appear in adult criminal court. After arraignment the courts decide whether to detain or release. Majority of the time the minor is released during the hearing process. The next step involve one of three outcomes: the minor enters a plea agreement, the judge diverts the case, or the judge holds an adjudicatory hearing. Diversion includes the court maintaining jurisdiction over the case while the minor is allowed to complete a recommendation program such as counseling or community service and non completing could include the reinstatement of formal charges. The adjudicatory hearing is much like an adult criminal hearing in which both sides present their case and evidence in a trial. The judge will make a determination as to whether or not the minor is delinquent. Instead of being found guilty, as such is the case in an adult criminal case, the courts sustain the petition. This is followed by the probation office evaluating the minor, ordering a psychological examination or diagnostic tests if necessary, and then make recommendations at the disposition hearing (which is similar to a sentencing hearing in criminal court). The judge then decides what is in the best interest of the juvenile, and may order any number of things as part of the disposition, including: counseling, confinement in a juvenile detention facility, reimbursement of the victim, or probation. The judge may also order the juvenile to appear in court periodically (called post-disposition hearings) so that the judge can monitor the juveniles behavior and progress. One of the less severe cases in the juvenile system is the status offense. This is an offense that would not classify as a crime in the adult court system. The idea behind a status offense is that the specific activity is harmful to minors, and the government should do what they can to prevent minors to do things such as purchase cigarettes. Other examples of some status offenses are truancy and possession and consumption of alcohol. Before the 1960s and 1970s, status offense cases were brought into the juvenile justice system, but now they are diverted to agencies outside the juvenile courts jurisdiction (FindLaw). This change came about thanks to the 1974 Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act which essentially deinstitutionalized status offenses (FindLaw). This change was introduced because a handful of people believe that status offenses are minor, and these same people believe that juveniles are best off dealing with the situation with either their parents or an agency rather than being processed like adults through the justice system. The juvenile system is comprised of many complexities that vastly different from the adult criminal courts. The main focus of the juvenile system is to rehabilitate and support, were as in the adult criminal courts it is accountability first and rehabilitation (if possible) second. Juveniles are seen as individuals who are still in the development stage of life and need guidance, counsel, and support. Courts do not minimize the need for discipline or punishment but focus on growth. In each stage the courts recognize an aim to nurture and consider the best interest of the minor first.
Posted by Carolyn Bustamante at 8:13 PM